A rove vampire of London, Lord Akeldama is one of the oldest vampires in London (and possibly the world). A shrewd gatherer of information, Akeldama prides himself on two things: his fashion, and knowing everything. He is attended in these goals by a large number of dandy drones, many of aristocratic blood.
His creator was Queen Matakara. He was born a human as Alexander the Great, ruler of the Macedonian Empire.
Lord Akeldama is blond, with a pixie face and fangs that are 'like the perfect dress sword... quite subtle fangs for a man of [his] reputation'. This seems to imply that his fangs are small and delicate, though they are also described as very, very sharp.
An admirer once described him as having "the face of Ganymede on earth."
He is known as the leader of fashion, and his personal style is flamboyant and foppish, with lace, ruffles, and daring haute-couture such as brocade gloves and three-inch heels.
"Outrageous was a very good way of describing Lord Akeldama."
Despite his colorful appearance and flamboyant personality, he is a shrewd vampire that keeps tabs on any and all information he can get his hands on, which is mostly reported to him through his drones. He has also expressed compassion, sharing this information with Alexia, and warning and protecting her—presumably even before his first appearance in Soulless.
He was "created" by Queen Matakara, who was the oldest living vampire before her death. When or where Lord Akeldama was born or when his metamorphosis occurred is left ambiguous in the series. Rue suspects he may be Greek in origin, and Gail Carriger has confirmed that he is Alexander the Great. Akeldama confirms this for Rue in Imprudence.He became sick with a fever, and as the real-world Alexander died of this fever, it is the most likely timing for his metamorphosis.
He has a longstanding dislike of Countess Nadasdy.
Lord Akeldama is a gay man, and for much of the Parasol Protectorate series is in a relationship with his lead drone, Biffy. He expresses sadness and regret at Biffy's ultimate fate.
Biffy believes that Akeldama's love is "always transient and shared", meaning he is not inclined to settle down with a single lover for a length of time. He believes this is done to to protect Akeldama's heart, after seeing so of his many lovers die. This may also be an in-period way to phrase and rationalise Lord Akeldama simply being polyamorous.
In the Books Edit
Lord Akeldama meets Sophronia, and afterwards shows some interest in her abilities as an intelligencer.
Lord Akeldama continues to court Sophronia in a professional sense, sending her small gifts on occasion.
Lord Akeldama is revealed to have been the patron of Agatha Woosmoss for her entire school career, explaining that her great amount of wealth is from him and not her father.Duke of Snodgrove and Lady Preshea Villentia (née Buss). He also facilitates hiring Lady Villentia to protect the Duke at his own party from assassination by offering her the information she needs to destroy her father.
Sometime in their history, he and Alexia became good friends, and Alexia sometimes came to Lord Akeldama for advice, particularly when it involved the supernatural. Alexia first reaches out to Lord Akeldama in Soulless after getting an invitation to the Westminster Hive.
Out of fear for her safety, Alexia also arranges to spend the full moon at Lord Akeldama's residence. Despite the precaution, both he and Alexia were kidnapped by the Hypocras Club. The scientists attempted to drain him and create a new vampire, but he was rescued by Alexia and Lord Maccon, helping them defeat the automaton once he was freed from his bonds.
Lady Maccon calls on Lord Akeldama to discover any information he had about the plague of humanization that struck London. She also introduces Lord Akeldama to Madame Lefoux. That same meeting he shows off his brand new aethographic transmitter. The aethographor is later used to relay information to and from Scotland.
At the beginning of Blameless, Alexia is hoping to stay with Lord Akeldama (rather than her bothersome family) since she has been forced to quit her husband's house. However, when she arrived at his doorstep he was gone. Lord Akeldama had been forced to swarm when his favorite drone - Biffy - had been taken by the potentate. He'd left Boots behind to give Alexia a very subtle hint: "Leave England. And beware of Italians who embroider."
The novel opens with Lord Akeldama, Lord Maccon, and Professor Lyall trying to convince Lady Maccon that allowing Lord Akeldama to adopt her baby was the best way to help ensure the safety of everyone involved. They are finally able to convince her that with his position as potentate and the local hives owing him a blood debt for the kidnapping and subsequent loss of his drone, Lord Akeldama was in the best position to protect Alexia's child, but she insists on moving in as well. They devise a plan to move part of the pack into the neighboring home to keep up appearances.
Lord Akeldama is then involved in the investigation of a potential threat against the Queen in his position as potentate. With his help, Alexia uncovers that Professor Lyall was behind the Kingair Affair.
When the true plot against a queen was discovered to be Countess Nadasdy, Alexia tried to save her by having her swarm. Lord Akeldama refused to allow her to swarm to his home, or else he would have lost it - forcing Alexia to bring the hive to Woolsey Castle. This had the advantage of getting Lord Akeldama's greatest rival out of London.
Shortly thereafter he helped entertain the visiting Lady Kingair to report the death of her beta: Dubh. During which Prudence touched her and took off down the street as a tiny wolf, making a scene of the neighborhood.
The next evening Lord Akeldama and his drone, Tizzy, took Prudence for a stroll in the park. Afterwards, Alexia consulted him on the summons from Queen Matakara in Egypt. This was when Alexia guessed that Matakara was the vampire that had transformed Akeldama. He gives his blessing to let them take Prudence to Egypt and later sees them off for their trip.
Lord Akeldama sends his adopted daughter, Prudence, on a secret mission to recover a sample of tea. With that sample of tea, he sends her off in her very own dirigible to India to explore the possibility of growing and importing this special kind of tea.
Lord Akeldama is in a serious conversation with Lady Maccon about the state of Lord Maccon at the beginning of Imprudence. After Rue learns about the reality of her parent's current situation with Lord Maccon suffering from alpha madness, Lord Akeldama comforts his adoptive daughter - even revealing his true age. It is later discovered that Lord Akeldama is the person who commissioned the preservation tank aboard the Spotted Custard specifically for Floote.
“The other gentleman was Lord Akeldama – an undersized absurdity, all pompadour and no circumstance. He sported a monocle he didn’t need, an accent not his own, and an attitude forever tempting disregard. He was also the deadliest creature Preshea knew.”
Lord Akeldama and Biffy have their final goodbye amidst the chaos of new kittens being brought into the house after Madame Pudgemuffin's passing. He is also the first place Professor Lyall goes when he realizes the London Pack has moved.
Lord Akeldama pays a visit to Bertie while Sir Crispin Bontwee is there. Crispin then tries to send actor, Cinjin Theris, to Lord Akeldama in hopes that he'll leave the Nottingham Hive, but Lord Akeldama refuses him.
- Lord Akeldama goes by the code name "Goldenrod" while working with Zayed in Timeless.
- Alexia Tarabotti refers to Lord Akeldama as Aunt Augustina.
- His name comes from the Aramaic word (חקל דמא), which translates to "field of blood," and is the name of the place where Judas Iscariot is said to have died. 
- Lord Akeldama has many, many drones, one of which was Biffy.
- His house is located "off Russell Square." Gail chose this square for many reasons, but really because this is the location of the hotel she stayed in as a child with her mother.
- Lord Akeldama's preferred weapon is an articulated/folding double ended short Glaive designed to kill both supernaturals and mortals. Closed, it's described in Soulless as a "a gilded pipe with multiple joints, mounted on the mantle." To open: "He pressed hard at a hidden button in the midpoint and a curved, hook-like, blade sprung out each end of the pipe and clicked into place. One was sharpened ironwood, the other solid silver."
- The narrator, Emily Gray, mispronounces Lord Akeldama's name in the audiobook of Soulless because producers did not ask Gail about pronunciation until the second book was about to release. Normally, Gail doesn't much care but it's important that Lord Akeldama's name is said they way it is in her brain for reasons that will become clear in the Custard Protocol series.
- Lord Akeldama uses lemon scents and takes a little bit of lemon in his tea, despite vampires being allergic to lemon. He did this to build up an immunity so he could use lemon on his hair for shine.
- Lord Akeldama had attempted to recruit Major Channing previously, who was apparently a very skilled sculptor.
- Lord Akeldama is referred to as Subject V-322-XA in the BUR file at the beginning of Heartless.
- Lord Akeldama is fond of monocles, though purely as an accessory.
- Lord Akeldama was transformed by Queen Matakara.
- Prudence lovingly refers to Lord Akedlama as Dama.
- Lord Akeldama was Preshea Buss's patron after she left finishing school.
- It is revealed in Imprudence that Lord Akeldama is Alexander the Great, making him 2,251 years old.
- Despite his own fashion being in direct conflict with his dandy drones, Lord Akeldama doesn't seem to harbour a fop's disdain of dandyism.
- Lord Akeldama had investements in lime quarries in South America.
- Lord Akeldama character study, at Gail's blog.
- Lord A runs a series of advice columns, Dear Lord Akeldama, on Gail's blog.
- The Mad Hatter interviews Lord Akeldama.
- Lord Akeldama manga art.
- The Mad Hatter Interviews Alexia, Conall & Lord Akeldama
- Pinterest Character Board for Lord Akeldama.
- “'What do you want?" Sophronia was moved to exasperation. 'Me? Stockings and breeches to come back in fashion. I do miss seeing a man's calves.'” (Curtsies & Conspiracies, The 15th Test)
- "Lord Akeldama was dressed in emerald satin with a cream-and-gold striped waistcoat, and a cream silk cravat tied over with an emerald ribbon. He wore a gold-and-emerald tie pin that give Dimity a small case of the vapors." (Waistcoats & Weaponry, Crisis Six)
- “Lord Akeldama was known by a select few to be a consummate spymaster, and by everyone else as a renowned fashion icon. The two were intimately connected, of course, but even fewer realized that.” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Two)
- “The other gentleman was Lord Akeldama – an undersized absurdity, all pompadour and no circumstance. He sported a monocle he didn’t need, an accent not his own, and an attitude forever tempting disregard. He was also the deadliest creature Preshea knew. And she knew a great number of deadly creatures, including herself.” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Two)
- “If we provide the right incentive, all things are possible, even perfection.” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Two)
- “But wait. What blood from yonder mortal drips?” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Two)
- “I was a great traveler before I grew my fangs. Trotted over most of the known world. Of course, it wasn’t as big back then.” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Ten)
- “Choose love. Always choose love. If the decision is between love and anything else, choose love.” (Poison or Protect, Chapter Ten)
- “A vampire, like a lady, never reveals his true age.” (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- “He also seemed to speak predominantly in italics.” (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- "Lord Akeldama's hair was as gold as the buckles on his shoes. One always expected vampires to be dark and slightly doomy. Lord Akeldama was the antithesis of all expectations. He wore his blonde hair long and queued back in a manner stylish hundreds of years ago." (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- “In this particular instance, he stroked her hand fondly. There was no attraction in the movement. 'Sweetling,' he had once said, 'you are at no more risk with me in that regard than you are in danger of me unexpectedly biting you--both being equal impossibilities. In the one case, I do not possess the necessary equipment upon contact, in the other case you do not.'” (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- “Werewolves have been susceptible to the gentler sex for as long as I can remember, and that is a very long time, indeed.” (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- "My dove, I do not know what is transpiring here. Me, ignorant!" (Soulless, Chapter Two)
- "Lord Akeldama once said hive politics put the workings of the British government, whether daylight or shadow, to shame." (Soulless, Chapter Four)
- “'What if I arrange to be around Lord Akeldama during the full moon?' The earl looked daggers. 'I am certain he would be extremely helpful in a fight. He could ruthlessly flatter all your attackers into abject submission.'” (Soulless, Chapter Four)
- "Lord Akeldama possessed real, substantial wealth and was not afraid to display it openly." (Soulless, Chapter Nine)
- “Lord Akeldama waggled a wrist limply in the air. 'There is a sizable game in motion, my darlings. I depend upon you all to play it with your usual consummate skill.” (Soulless, Chapter Nine)
- “'I believe the defining moment was when certain persons, who shall remain nameless, objected to my fuchsia silk striped waistcoat. I loved that waistcoat. I put my foot down, right then and there; I do not mind telling you!' To punctuate his deeply offended feelings, he stamped one silver-and-pearl-decorated high heel firmly. 'No one tells me what I can and cannot wear!' He snapped up a lace fan from where it lay on a hall table and fanned himself vigorously with it for emphasis.” (Soulless, Chapter Nine)
- “The vampire's eyes were open, and he was staring at her intently. It was as though he were trying to speak to her with simply the power of a glare. Alexia did not speak glare-ish.” (Soulless, Chapter Ten)
- “My dearest girl,' said the vampire finally, examining Lord Maccon with an exhausted but appreciative eye, 'such a banquet. Never been one to favor werewolves myself, but he is very well equipped, now, is he not?' Miss Tarabotti gave him an arch look. 'My goodies,' she warned. 'Humans,' chuckled the vampire, 'so possessive.” (Soulless, Chapter Thirteen)
- "...Lord Akeldama was also London's main busybody, and he ran his ring of impeccably clad informants so efficiently it put anything the government could muster to shame." (Changeless, Chapter Two)
- "Lord Akeldama was a very old vampire. There were rumors he was older even than Countess Nadasdy, and everyone knew she was five hundred or more." (Changeless, Chapter Five)
- "He did not like open acknowledgment that his collection of apparently decorative and inconsequential drones, possessed of high family connections and little evident sense, were in fact consummate spies." (Changeless, Chapter Five)
- “Sometimes I can even pick up messages intended for other aethographors.' He frowned a moment. 'Story of my life, if you think about it.” (Changeless, Chapter Five)
- "Whatever else one might say about Lord Akeldama, and one might say a lot, he had excellent taste in drones." (Changeless, Chapter Thirteen)
- "Lord Akeldama was a rove of such consistently shocking dress and manner that his reputation could only be amplified by taking in the now-ruined Lady Maccon." (Blameless, Chapter One)
- "Lord Akeldama did everything fashionably, sometimes to the exclusion of all else, including common sense. If Lord Akeldama were to take up wrestling in vats of jellied eels, it would probably become fashionable within a fortnight." (Blameless, Chapter Two)
- "Lord Akeldama was never one to prioritize one vital factor, such as murder, over another, such as fashion." (Blameless, Chapter Five)
- "The vampire in question had many sterling qualities - admirable taste in waistcoats and acerbic wit to name but a few - but subtlety was not among them." (Blameless, Chapter Five)
- "Lyall had spent centuries nibbling about the great layer cake that was polite society while Lord Akeldama acted the part of the frosting on its top." (Blameless, Chapter Fourteen)
- "Lord Akeldama was a man who hid his real feelings, not with an absence of emotions but with an excess of false ones." (Blameless, Chapter Fourteen)
- "I am a rove so that I might make my own decisions: who to love, who to watch, and, most importantly, what to wear." (Blameless, Chapter Fourteen)
- "Lord Akeldama was not a big man, certainly not by werewolf standards, but he moved so quickly that he was around Professor Lyall's desk, slim hands around the werewolf's throat, faster than Lyall's eyes could follow." (Blameless, Chapter Fourteen)
- "Love, of all eccentricities among the supernatural set, was the most embarrassing and the least talked about or expected. But Lord Akeldama's face, for all its icy beauty, was drawn with genuine loss into a kind of carved marble agony." (Blameless, Chapter Fourteen)
- "Poor Akeldama was not having a good night. He had lost his lover and his comparative anonymity in one fell swoop." (Blameless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "That soul-stealer, the one the Edict Keepers warn us of? The reason for all this twaddle? Her name was Al-Zabba and she was a relative of sorts." (Blameless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "Lord Akeldama smiled back, showing off his deadly fangs. Professor Lyall thought them just long enough to be threatening without being ostentatious, like the perfect dress sword. They were quite subtle fangs for a man of Lord Akeldama's reputation." (Blameless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "Look at Lord Akeldama - he's practically an exception to everything." (Blameless, Chapter Sixteen)
- "Lord Akeldama raised his monocle. Like Lyall's spectacles, it was entirely artificial. But he did love the accessory so. He had several, set with different gemstones and in different metals to match any outfit." (Heartless, Chapter One)
- “Lord Akeldama sighed. 'You lovebirds, how will I endure such flirtations constantly in my company? How déclassé, Lord Maccon, to love your own wife.” (Heartless, Chapter One)
- “If left together for too long, the two of them might actually take over the civilized world, through sheer application of snide remarks.” (Heartless, Chapter Two)
- "After that tea, Alexia had been forced to admit that Lord Akeldama and Ivy Tunstell were like plaid and brocade, utterly incompatible even in complementary colors." (Heartless, Chapter Two)
- "Lord Akeldama was generally regarded by members of both the military and the constabulary with whom he had congress as challenging in large doses." (Heartless, Chapter Four)
- "Lord Akeldama was a man who Lady Maccon very much doubted had had much to do with dressing - or undressing - ladies on a regular basis, yet he seemed more than equal to the task." (Heartless, Chapter Six)
- "Also, Lord Akeldama never doled out information without good reason." (Heartless, Chapter Six)
- "But I and mine, possibly more than anyone else in London, do not presume to judge the predilections of others." (Heartless, Chapter Six)
- "Lord Akeldama was rumored to insist that all his drones go without the dreaded lip skirt. The vampire had once had the vapors upon encountering an unexpected mustache around a corner of his hallway." (Heartless, Chapter Eight)
- “Oh, dear me, no. Then I should be known as that vampire with all the cats.” (Heartless, Chapter Eight)
- “'Well, if you insist. But, my dearest flower, how ghastly to consider that such a mustache must shadow the clean-shaven grandeur of my domicile.' Lord Akeldama was rumored to insist that all his drones go without the dreaded lip skirt. The vampire had once had the vapors upon encountering an unexpected mustache around a corner of his hallway. Muttonchops were permitted in moderation, and only because they were currently all the rage among the most fashionable of London's gentlemen-about-town. Even so, they must be as well tended as the topiary of Hampton Court.” (Heartless, Chapter Eight)
- “She wondered if the immortal's avoidance of life's ugliness was a matter of survival or bigotry. Lord Akeldama did so love to know all the gossip about the mundane world, but it was in the manner of a cat amusing himself among the butterflies without a need to interfere should their wings get torn off. They were only butterflies, after all.” (Heartless , Chapter Nine)
- “Trust me, darling, it is never a good idea to have too many queens in one place, let alone one palace.” (Heartless, Chapter Fifteen)
- “...Lord Akeldama never did anything by halves, especially if he might double it at three times the expense.” (Timeless, Chapter One)
- "He appeared to be reading a suspiciously embossed novel, but Alexia could not quite countenance such an activity in Lord Akeldama. To her knowledge, he never read anything, except perhaps the society gossip columns." (Timeless, Chapter Two)
- “'My hallway,' remarked Lord Akeldama, 'has never seen such lively action. And that, my sugarplums, is saying something!” (Timeless, Chapter Three)
- "Lord Akeldama did so enjoy making a spectacle of himself. Luckily, signs were beginning to indicate that Prudence felt similarly on the subject. Two peas in a very sparkly pod." (Timeless, Chapter Five)
- "The man was, after all, too outrageous for fatherhood. The vampire side of his character being, in Ivy's universe, far less a thing than his scandalous comportment and flamboyant dress." (Timeless, Chapter Five)
- "Truth be told, Lord Akeldama had transformed into rather a homebody since becoming a father, much to London's surprise." (Timeless, Chapter Six)
- "Lord Akeldama's motives were always his own." (Timeless, Chapter Six)
- "Lord Akeldama liked to know things for their own sake." (Timeless, Chapter Eight)
- "As was often the case with Lord Akeldama, while he seemed to be doing a good deal of the talking, in the end Biffy and Lyall found themselves transferring to him the bulk of the information. Professor Lyall was not happy with this, but Biffy was comfortable knowing that the vampire enjoyed collecting information, but rarely did he put it to any concrete use. He was rather like a little old biddy who collected demitasse teacups that she then set upon a shelf to admire." (Timeless, Chapter Thirteen)
- “The burden of a spy, Lord Akeldama always said, was not in the knowing of things but in knowing when to tell such things to others.” (Timeless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "I don't trust serendipity, Professor Lyall. I don't trust it at all.' No one missed the fact that the vampire was, for once, using someone's proper name." (Timeless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "I never underestimate the same man twice..." (Timeless, Chapter Fifteen)
- "That vampire never reveals anything if he can possibly help it." (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "And all of my dresses are Worth. Dama would hardly condone anything less." (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "Dama always behaved as if he hadn't sen an acquaintance in years. 'Time between visits,' he usually said, 'is irrelevant to vampires. We are old and often forgotten - people know we will always be there, thus we vampires very much like to be remembered.'" (Prudence, Chapter One)
- “He wielded verbal italics as if they were capable of actual bodily harm.” (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "Bath houses ought to come back into fashion soon, everything is about steam this century already. I should invest." (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "Dama left nothing to chance, least of all his own appearance." (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "Queen Mums simply doesn't approve of you. I think it's your fashion choices.' Dama did not look offended. 'My dear, I cannot think of a better reason to dislike a person!" (Prudence, Chapter One)
- "The vampire, unlike his hive-bound fellows, often went out on the town, taking in the latest play or opera, occasionally calling up on his mortal acquaintances." (Prudence, Chapter Two)
- "Dama always made the appearance of doing what was proper and modern." (Prudence, Chapter Two)
- "I am an old vampire, little Puggle, and i did not get so old by being reckless." (Prudence, Chapter Two)
- "I do love you, Dama, but sometimes you can be the most vexing of all my parents." (Prudence, Chapter Two)
- "He did so enjoy a fuss, and if it couldn't be over him, his Puggle was the next best thing." (Prudence, Chapter Four)
- "If Dama had taught her nothing, it was that outrageous was often one's best disguise. It is a very great thing, my Puggle, not to be taken seriously, he had once said." (Prudence, Chapter Five)
- "Dama was dear friends with Jean-Philippe and had a standing order in for Rue - new gowns every season. Dama referred to the older Worth's demise earlier that year as the Great Tragedy..." (Prudence, Chapter Seven)
- "I'm his beloved daughter, true, but he is still a vampire and he doesn't perceive danger in quite the same way as we mere mortals." (Prudence, Chapter Eight)
- “My darlingest of Alexias, I am never serious. I resent the implication that I should be.” (Imprudence, Chapter One)
- “Forgive us immortals our sins of pride, child. We all age like cheese, growing strong and tasty, but also covered in the mould of good intentions gone grey.” (Imprudence, Chapter Six)
- “One doesn’t want to sully one’s own gown with blood.” (Imprudence, Chapter Eleven)
- “Lord Akeldama is comprised of nothing but whims.” (Imprudence, Chapter Twelve)
- "They? They! I believe I was quite clear on this matter-only one cat at a time in this household. I can't be seen to have more than one cat, it simply isn't done. It's too much. Too eccentric in a vampire." (Romancing the Werewolf, Chapter One)
- "Lord Akeldama was not to be persuaded by mustaches on cats. Or anyone else, for that matter." (Romancing the Werewolf, Chapter One)
- "Lord Akeldama's love, such as it was, was always transient and shared." (Romancing the Werewolf, Chapter One)
- "Lord Akeldama was distracted, on to the next crisis, on to the next evening's entertainment on to the next toy. It was house he weathered immortality." (Romancing the Werewolf, Chapter One)
- "Pride,' Lord Akeldama always said, 'only lasts a century or two. It is the first sin to go. Deadly sins don't last long if you're already dead." (Competence, Chapter Fourteen)
- "The vampire had a way of moving his hands, fluttery and distracting, like baby birds." (Defy or Defend, Chapter 2)
- "Really, Lord A, you're becoming predictable.' The vampire reared back, seeming genuinely hurt. 'Never. How cruel you are, Bertie-my-pearl." (Defy or Defend, Chapter 2)
- ↑ Soulless, Chapter 2
- ↑ Gail Carriger's blog: http://gailcarriger.livejournal.com/155824.html
- ↑ Blameless, Chapter 15
- ↑ Soulless, Chapter 2
- ↑ Prudence, Chapter 1
- ↑ Soulless, ch. 2
- ↑ Soulless, Chapter 2
- ↑ The Parasol Protectorate Books Group on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/parasolprotectorate/permalink/983014331711662/
- ↑ Gail Carriger's blog: http://gailcarriger.blogspot.com/2014/12/dear-lord-akeldama-on-influence-of.html
- ↑ Romancing the Werewolf, Chapter One.
- ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akeldama
- ↑ Competence, Chapter Fifteen